# Redshift Models

## Models based on *d(hν) = – H (hν) dt*

(C.f. ** Nernst 1937**, auf Deutsch, in English)

### Light - Light Interaction

Energy-momentum tensor non-conservation of a photon propagating through EM fields

(A.D.A.M. Spallicci et al. 2020)

Light loses energy in accordance with the blackbody radiation law

(N. Saryal 2015)

Thermalization of the energy of photons into the equilibrium blackbody energy distribution

(Laszlo A. Marosi 2012)

Redshift produced in a light interaction with microwaves

(J.F.G. Julia 2010)

The photon has a finite dipole moment which radiates energy

(R. Driscoll 2005)

Photons lose energy by traversing a radiation field via a photon-photon interaction

(E. Finlay-Freundlich 1954)

### Light - Hydrogen Interaction

Photon energy loss in interactions with hydrogen atoms

(M.-H. Shao et al. 2018)

A coherent Raman effect on the index of refraction in hydrogen produces a redshift

(J. Moret-Bailly 2006)

The redshift results from the interaction of light with molecular hydrogen

(G. Corriveau 1992)

Photon momentum polarizes hydrogen atoms which emit a small amount of energy

(P. Marmet 1988)

### Light - Electron Interaction

Light interaction with electrons

(L. Ashmore 2015)

Soft photon emission during interaction with free electrons

(Y. Zheng 2013)

Photon interaction with free electrons

(D. Mamas 2010)

In a electromagnetic 3-D invariant in 16 dimensions, photon energy is lost without scattering

(D.F. Roscoe 2009)

The transverse Doppler effect reduces light frequency on forward scattering off hot electrons

(F. Vaughan 2009)

Optical gradient force transfers light energy to atoms and electrons

(L. Marmet 2009)

Photon energy loss in a hot, sparse electron plasma

(A. Brynjolfsson 2004)

Random plasma fluctuations affects the propagation of light and are responsible for the redshift

(T. Smid 2000)

The interstellar medium, a hot plasma, interacts with light

(L. Accardi et al. 1995)

Electrons emit Huygens secondary wavelets, the Compton effect produces the energy loss

(J. Kierein 1988)

Photons supply kinetic energy to electrons resulting in a lengthening of their wavelength

(H.S. Shelton 1953)

### Light - Quantum Interaction

Light is a wave within a particulate medium and loses energy with its motion

(G. Borchardt 2015)

Photon mass and the de Broglie-Einstein wave equations predict a redshift

(M. Evans 2010)

Photons lose energy in the vacuum of space due to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

(R. Caswell 2009)

Photon-mass interaction with vacuum

(J.-C. Pecker, J.-P. Vigier 1987)

Photons lose energy while travelling through space according to subquantum kinetics fields

(P. LaViolette 1985)

Photons interact with elementary quanta

(H. Broberg 1983)

Cosmological space conducts electricity

(A. Kipper 1972) (downloads the pdf paper)

A photon, an extended wave plus a singularity, loses energy into the subquantum medium

(L. de Broglie 1960)

### Light - Gravity Interaction

Energy loss in the gravitational field of matter in the cosmic environment

(A. Barenbaum 2021)

Energy loss as the cross-sectional area of a bundle of geodesics slowly decreases

(D. Crawford 2018)

Light energy passing near a gravitating mass changes its frequency and converts into neutrinos

(S.N.P. Gupta 2018)

Photon energy dissipation through interaction with gravity protofield

(A. Kirilyuk 2015)

The gravitomagnetic effect is a viscous force that produces the redshift of photons

(E. Fischer 2008)

Photons interact with massive particles via gravity in a wave system theory

(T. Andrews 2006)

The energy of photons decreases with a distance due to interactions with the graviton background

(M.A. Ivanov 2004)

Dynamic gravitational interaction of photon with matter

(A. Ghosh 1997)

The photon loses energy to a vacuum composed of gravitational quanta

(T. Jaakkola 1991)

The Perfect Cosmological Principle and the Hubble Effect

(P.N. Kropotkin 1991)

Photon-graviton interaction

(E. Stein 1990)

A photon forced to move a curved path in a gravitational field emits gravitons

(R. Fürth 1964)

Photons passing near a mass are deflected, transfer momentum and energy to the mass

(F. Zwicky 1935)

### Light - Dust Interaction

Energy loss in interaction with dust

(W. Jim Jastrzebski 2010)

Energy absorbed by submicron cosmic dust particles via QED induced EM radiation

(T. Prevenslik 2008)

“Hot” radiation thermalizes with the “cold” intergalactic medium

(C. Gallo 2006)

Redshift is an effect upon light waves due to cumulative material obstruction

(R. Underwood 1935)

Intergalactic dust offers resistance to light from distant nebulae

(W. Arx 1932)

### Light - Aether Interaction

Photon energy dissipation in the fabric of spacetime

(C. Roth based on M. Danielewski 2020)

Energy loss of light as it propagates against the gravitational flow of the vacuum

(A. Srečko Šorli 2020)

Photons experience a friction force in vacuum through interactions

(W. Zhang 2019)

Light interacts with space itself and undergoes redshift as it propagates through the cosmos

(J. Lupo 2015)

The carrier of light, aether, subjects EM-field waves to constant fading

(K.A. Khaidarov 2003)

The vacuum has small internal friction, imposing damping and a variable speed of light

(E.I. Shtyrkov 1993)

### Inherent Energy Loss

The energy dissipated per cycle by a photon is the product of the Planck and the Hubble constants

(W.D. Zhang 2020)

Internal interactions within the photon are responsible for the gradual loss of energy

(D. Brasoveanu 2017)

Photon energy decays with propagation

(Y. Heymann 2014)

The photon obeys a decay equation

(M. Lewis 2006)

The redshift is the energy loss of a photon per cycle of the light wave

(A.M. Chepick 2002)

The photon has a decay lifetime similar to radioactive or unstable particles

(A. Stolmar 2001)

Exponential decay of the photon energy

(H. Dart 1993)

Energy is lost by the photon each time it travels the distance equal to its wavelength

(H. Broberg 1981)

Every photon gives off a primordial energy-element during each vibration

(A. Haas 1936)

Optical waves undergo adiabatic transformations

(J. Halm 1935)

Energy loss is assumed due to an inherent instability of the photon

(W.D. MacMillan 1932)

An isolated quantum slowly but steadily dissipates part of its energy

(H. Buc 1932)

A lowering of photons energy without any external agency

(J. Stewart 1931)

### Alternative, Empirical

Electromagnetic radiation evolves towards the wavelength of the CMBR

(P. Gosselin 2022)

Electromagnetic waves traveling in the tachyon plasma field are attenuated

(T. Musha 2020)

Photon energy as a quaternion is lost in the centrifugal forces of moving masses

(W. Lindsay 2008)

The case for an exponential red shift law

(P.F. Browne 1962) (downloads the pdf paper)

The redshift is due to a decrease in the velocity of light in time

(F. Arnot 1938)

The red shift is explained with a decrease with time of the quantum of action

(S. Sambursky 1937)

Decreasing speed of light with time

(H. Schier 1932)

## Alternative Tired-Light Redshift Mechanism

### Light - Aether Interaction

Photon momentum transfer to the cosmic medium

(M. Edwards 2022)

### Light - Electron Interaction

When light crosses a thin plasma, free electrons are accelerated and radiate the energy

(H. Weidner 2014)

### Light - Quantum Interaction

Quantum effect causing a wavelength increase

(A. Belopolsky 1929)

### Light - Gravity Interaction

Transverse gravitational redshift

(A. Mayer 2017)

Vacuum absorption by black holes removes energy from photons

(L. Vuyk 2017)

A positive spacetime curvature appears as an omnidirectional deceleration that increases wavelength

(P. Carroll 2014)

A linear variation of gravity with time

(N. Kaiser 2013)

The nonuniform mass distribution causes a gravitational redshift

(E. Lopez Sandoval 2008)

Quantum celestial mechanics gravitational potential

(H.G. Preston, F. Potter 2007)

Relativistic vacuum energy density and pressure of the gravitational structure produces a redshift

(R. Gentry 1997)

A light beam leaves behind more and more mass, causing an increasing gravitational redshift

(F. Kaiser 1934)

Galactic mass decreases with time

(M. Eigenson 1932)

### Inherent Energy Loss

Energy loss to the entirety of the expanding wavefront

(B. Rapanault 2020)

Dispersive extinction produces a redshift due to the finite linewidth of radiation

(L. Jun Wang 2012)

### Time-Varying Effect

Light speed is variable resulting in a gravitational cosmic redshift

(R.H.V. Gallucci 2016)

A time dependent speed of light produces the redshift

(Y.-H. Sanejouand 2009)

An aether model in which the speed of light decreases with time

(A. Rothwarf 1998)

Slowing down of the velocity of propagation of light

(M. Gheury de Bray 1939)

The velocity of light is a function of time

(P.I. Wold 1935) (downloads the pdf paper)

Planck’s constant varies with time (?)

(J. Chalmers et al. 1935)

The speed of light changes with time

(H. Gramatzki 1934)

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